Notes on Hebrews 4:3-10

For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest1: although the works were finished from the foundation of the world. For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise, And God did rest the seventh day from all his works2. And in this place again, If they shall enter into my rest. Seeing therefore it remaineth that some must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief: Again, he limiteth a certain day, saying in David, To day, after so long a time; as it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts. For if [Joshua] had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day. There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God3. For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his.

  • 1. Ps 95:11
  • 2. Gen 2:2
  • 3. Matt 11:28-29

Contextual Background: The author is here writing to Hebrew Christians who are in a very real danger of turning from their Christian profession back to Judaism. Additionally, the preceding argument from Chapter 3 is that many Israelites died in the wilderness, not seeing the promised land, because they were mere professors of faith, but did not have true saving faith – “we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief” (Heb 3:19). This should cause us to take some time for self reflection – “Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God” (Heb 3:12). How do we know that we have true saving faith? We are told that “we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end” (Heb 3:14).

Furthermore, the author is continuing his theme of how the New Covenant is superior to the Old. These verses are in the midst of the larger argument begun in chapter 3 in which the writer is providing evidence about how Joshua led his people into a temporary rest, but Christ, has already entered the eternal rest, and will lead his people into it.

 

literally: if they shall enter into my rest…

  • This means “they shall NOT enter into my rest” (Hebrew elliptical oath)
    • Who did God say would not enter his rest in Ps 95:11? According to Heb 3:11, they were those that had “an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God”.

…although the works were finished from the foundation of the world. For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise, And God did rest the seventh day from all his works.

  • God finished His work of creating on the seventh day and rested (Gen 2:2)
  • This rest was commemorated by Israel in its weekly Sabbath. (Ex 31:17)
  • The author is reminding us that although the seventh day is ‘a’ rest of God mentioned in the Bible, it is not ‘the’ rest of God that was offered to the Hebrew people after the Exodus (and which is the present focus). This Old Covenant rest of God, which the Hebrews rejected through unbelief, was a rest from slavery and war in the land of Canaan
  • This promised land rest was that referred to in chapter 3, and, which is used as a type here of the future eternal rest of God in Heaven – “There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God” (verse 9)

they to whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief…

The word “preached” here means “evangelize.” The same root word is rendered “gospel” in verse 2. This shows us, First, that God has employed only one instrument in the saving of sinners from the beginning, namely, the preaching of the gospel, cf. Galatians 3:8. Second, that the demand of the Gospel from those who hear it is faith, taking God at His word, receiving with childlike simplicity and gladness the good news He has sent us. Third, that “unbelief” shuts out from God’s favor and blessing. …Solemn warning was this for the Hebrews whose faith was waning. (AW Pink)

For if [Joshua] had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day. There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God

  • The author of Hebrews always makes contrasts between the old and new covenant (better covenant, better promises, etc). Here he is presenting a better rest than that enjoyed under the Old Covenant
  • When Ps 95 (the chapter the author is here explaining) was written, the Israelites were enjoying rest from their enemies in their own land. The author here reminds his readers that this was only a temporary and typological rest, which only points to the better and eternal rest yet to come
  • [The Jews had] external types to guide them; not so have we, nor have we indeed any need of them, for the naked truth itself is set before our eyes. …Christ [does not] extend his hand to us, that he may conduct us by the circuitous course of types and figures, but that he may withdraw us from the world and raise us up to heaven. Now that the Apostle separates the shadow from the substance, he did so for this reason, — because he had to do with the Jews, who were too much attached to external things. (Calvin)

  • There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God
    • The Jews enjoyed a type of rest in their own land
    • Believers experience, in this life, a rest from slavery to sin.
    • However, there remains a future promise of eternal life in peace and rest

For he that is entered into his rest he also hath ceased from his own works, as God from His

  • “…rest is not enjoyed till work is ceased from. This world is full of toil, travail and trouble, but in the world to come there is full freedom from all these.” (Pink)
  • Many commentators (Pink, Calvin, Gill) take the “he” here to mean Christ. They understand this to mean that Christ has finished his work on the earth (John 19:30) and has entered His rest, just as the Father finished his work on the sixth day of creation and entered His rest. Evidence of this is seen in verse 11, where the emphasis is then shifted from the ‘he’ of verse 10, to ‘us’

Come unto Me, all ye that labor and are heavy-laden, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
(Matt 11:28-29)

Notes on Hebrews 4:1-3

Let us therefore fear1, lest, a promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it2. For unto us was the gospel preached3, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it4. For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest5: although the works were finished from the foundation of the world.

  • 1 Phil 2:12
  • 2 Heb 3:12
  • 3 Rom 10:17
  • 4 Eph 2:8-9
  • 5 Ps 95:11, Heb 3:11

This is a continuation of the argument begun in Hebrews 3:7, which is an exposition and application of Psalm 95. “Thus far we have had Christ’s superiority over the prophets, the angels, [and] Moses. Now it is the glory of Christ which excels that attaching to Joshua” (AW Pink).

Background on Joshua

  • Joshua was a great prophet like Moses (Joshua 1:5)
  • Joshua was to lead the people of God to their rest (Joshua 1:6)
    • “There shall not any man be able to stand before thee all the days of thy life: as I was with Moses, so I will be with thee: I will not fail thee, nor forsake thee. Be strong and of a good courage: for unto this people shalt thou divide for an inheritance the land, which I sware unto their fathers to give them. (Joshua 1:5-6)
  • See Josh 1:12-15, where possession of the Promised Land is called the ‘rest’ promised by God. See also Joshua 22:4, and 23:1
  • Although most of the original generation that left Egypt died in unbelief, their descendants did enter God’s earthly rest for the Hebrew people.
  • God fulfilled his promise land rest for the people of God. This rest is typical of the greater rest for the people of God that Jesus, of whom Joshua is a type, will lead His people into
    • “And the LORD gave unto Israel all the land which he sware to give unto their fathers; and they possessed it, and dwelt therein. And the LORD gave them rest round about, according to all that he sware unto their fathers: and there stood not a man of all their enemies before them; the LORD delivered all their enemies into their hand. There failed not ought of any good thing which the LORD had spoken unto the house of Israel; all came to pass. (Joshua 21:43-45)
    • For if Joshua had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day. There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God (Heb 4:8-9)
  • When Messiah comes, there will be a greater rest for the people of God: “And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious.” (Is 11:10)

The “rest” of Hebrews 3:11-4:11 refers to Canaan, and though Joshua actually conducted Israel into this rest, yet the apostle proves by a reference to Psalm 95 that Israel never really (as a nation) entered into the [final] rest of God. Herein lies the superiority of the Apostle (Heb 3:1) of Christianity; Christ does lead His people into the true rest. Such, we believe, is the line of truth developed in our passage.

(adapted from AW Pink)


Let us therefore fear

  • therefore… Chapter 3 ends with the solemn warning that the Hebrews who left Egypt “could not enter in because of unbelief.” Chapter 4 begins with a warning: therefore, in light of that, let us fear…
  • us – The author applies this admonition to himself and all believers.
  • Fear
    • Phil 2:12 – “…work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.”
    • The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. (Proverbs)
    • Fear the Lord (Mt 10:28)
    • Do not be high-minded, but fearful (Rom 11:20)
    • Pass your time in fear (1 Pet 1:17)
    • etc.
  • This fear is not a lack of confidence in God’s ability or willingness to save. Rather, let us fear our own frailty and unbelief. Our sinful nature deceives us and leads us to place our confidence in ourselves and makes us vulnerable to temptation and sin. This “evil heart of unbelief” leads one to apostatize from Christ (Heb 3:12). The fear of apostasy and unbelief should cause us to be on guard against being deceived by sin, because “we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end.
  • “But the fear which is here recommended is not that which shakes the confidence of faith but such as fills us with such concern that we grow not torpid with indifference. (John Calvin)

lest, a promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it.

  • What are we to fear? Not taking hold of the salvation which is freely offered us because of unbelief
  • The Hebrews left Egypt with great excitement and hope, but they did not have faith in God’s ability and willingness to keep his promise.
  • See Matthew 13:20-22. It is not our start, but our perseverance that witnesses our faith and salvation.

For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it.

  • God’s method of dealing with men has always been through the preaching of the gospel
  • Rom 10:14 – how can a man believe without preaching?
  • Faith comes by hearing (Rom 10:17) the gospel, but it is not the hearing alone that saves (Ja 1:22). The hearing must be mixed with faith
  • “For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.” (1 Cor 1:18)
  • “the Gospel is as food, and faith is the hand that receives it” (Gill)
  • For whom does the gospel work effectually? It is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth (Rom 1:16)
  • The gospel preached to the Hebrews: “The good news which was announced to the first-century readers of this epistle was that of a spiritual rest in Messiah. The good news given to the generation which came out of Egypt was that of a temporal, physical rest in a land flowing with milk and honey, offered to a people who had been reduced to abject slavery for 400 years… (Wuest)

For we which have believed do enter into rest…

  • The writer does NOT say that we HAVE entered into that rest, but rather that we DO enter that rest
    • vs 1 calls the rest for the people of God a promise (a future rest)
    • vs 9 states – “There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God…” (a future rest)
    • vs 11 states – “Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest” (a future rest)
  • Eph 1:13 – “After that ye believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise”. See also 2 Tim 1:12

“The absolute safety, the fixed and unchanging portion of the chosen people of God can never be doubted. From the eternal, heavenly, divine point of view, saints can never fall; they are seated in heavenly places with Christ; they are renewed by the Spirit, and sealed by Him unto everlasting glory. …. From our point of view, as we live in time, from day to day, our earnest desire must be to continue steadfast, to abide in Christ, to walk with God, to bring forth fruit that will manifest the presence of true and God-given life. Hence the apostle, who says to the Philippians, ‘Being confident of this very thing, that He which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ’ (Heb. 1:6), adds to a similar thought in another epistle, ‘If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel.’ … For it is by these very exhortations and warnings that the grace of God keeps us. It is in order that the elect may not fall, it is to bring out in fact and time the (ideal and eternal) impossibility of their apostasy, that God in His wisdom and mercy has sent to us such solemn messages and such fervent entreaties, to watch, to fight, to take heed unto ourselves, to resist the adversary”

(Adolph Saphir)

But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it; Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended. He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.

(Matt 13:20-23)

Notes on Hebrews 3:15-19

While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts1, as in the provocation2. For some, when they had heard, did provoke: howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses3. But with whom was he grieved forty years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilderness?4 And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest, but to them that believed not? So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief5.

  • 1 Rom 2:5
  • 2 Ps 95:8
  • 3 Dt 1:19-40
  • 4 Num 14:29
  • 5 Heb 4:6

The writer continues his exposition of Psalm 95.

While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation.

    • While it is said… What God has spoken, He continues to speak
    • Two things are impressed upon men:
      1. “hear his voice”
      2. “harden not your hearts”
    • This duty is to be performed promptly: today
    • To day” As each day is a new today, so God calls us *daily* to respond in faith and grow in grace
    • On the hardness of heart:
      • John 12:40 – “[The Lord] hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.
      • Rom 2:5 – “But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God.
    • Hardness of heart is always tied to unbelief: Mark 3:5, 6:52, 8:17, 10:5, 16:14

Alas, by nature we are hard-hearted: and what we call good and soft-hearted is not so in reality and in God’s sight When we receive God’s word in the heart, when we acknowledge our sin, when we adore God’s mercy, when we desire God’s fellowship, when we see Jesus, who came to save us, to wash our feet and shed His blood, for our salvation, the heart becomes soft and tender. For repentance, faith, prayer, patience, hope of heaven, all these things make the heart tender: tender towards God, tender towards our fellow-men… (Adolph Saffir)

For some, when they had heard, did provoke: howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses.

  • provocation is the act of inciting anger
  • Provocation here refers to the murmuring and lack of faith of the Hebrews in the Wilderness. Because of their lack of faith, none of those that left Egypt, except for Caleb and Joshua, were permitted to enter the promised land (Dt 1:19-40).
  • …howbeit not all… Caleb and Joshua are the pattern of the man of faith who follows God’s Word in spite of opposition

But with whom was he grieved forty years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilderness?

  • He refers to their dead bodies as “fallen carcases” to show God’s utter contempt of them for their lack of faith
  • The people’s chief sin was unbelief. All their other sins (murmuring, idolatry, lust) flowed from that
  • The destruction of that generation serves as an example to us: 1 Cor 10:5-11

And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest, but to them that believed not?

  • to them that believed not (τοῖς ἀπειθήσασιν). ἀπειθέω means “to be disobedient, refuse compliance” (LSJ), “not to allow one’s self to be persuaded, to refuse or withhold belief, to refuse belief and obedience” (Thayer)
  • ἀπειθέω – see Rom 2:5, 10:21
  • Perhaps translated “unbelievers” here because of what follows…

So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief.

“The apostle does not single out the sin of making and worshipping the golden calf; he does not bring before us the flagrant transgressions into which they fell at Beth-peor. Many much more striking and to our mind more fearful sins could have been pointed out, but God thinks the one sin greater than all is unbelief. We are saved by faith; we are lost through unbelief. The heart is purified by faith; the heart is hardened by unbelief. Faith brings us nigh to God; unbelief is departure from God”
(Adolph Saffir>

Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. (Heb 3:12)

Resources for the Epistle to the Hebrews

I’m compiling a list of resources on the book of Hebrews. This post will serve as a repository for those items as I find commentaries/audio/etc.

Commentaries Online

AW Pink Hebrews Commentary

Commentaries Recommended by FF Bruce

A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1924) – James Moffatt

The Epistle to the Hebrews (1903) – Brooke Foss Westcott

The Greek Testament: Volume 4 (1878) – Henry Alford

Commentary Used for RBS Hebrews Class

William Lindsay’s Lectures on the Epistle to the Hebrews, Volume 1
William Lindsay’s Lectures on the Epistle to the Hebrews, Volume 2

John Owen’s Commentary

Hebrews Commentary Volume 1

Hebrews Commentary Volume 2

Hebrews Commentary Volume 3

Hebrews Commentary Volume 4

Notes on Hebrews 3:7-11

Wherefore as the Holy Ghost saith,

1To day if ye will hear his voice, 2Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years3.  Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways4.  So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest5.

  • 1 Ps 95:7-11
  • 2 Heb 3:15, 4:7, Rom 2:5
  • 3 Ex 17:7, Num 14:22, Ps 78:40-41, Acts 7:36, Mt 4:7
  • 4 Ps 81:13
  • 5 Heb 4:3

IV Caution Against Falling Away

Verse 6 ends by stating that we are of the household of God “if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.“. The rest of chapter 3 is an exposition this premise. The apostle here warns Hebrew believers against falling away by reminding them of their ancestors that turned their back on God and worshiped other gods – “Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief“.

Wherefore as the Holy Ghost saith…

  • Ps 95:7-8 is again quoted in Hebrews 4:7 and there the Psalm is attributed to King David
  • Here the Scripture is attributed to its divine author – The Holy Spirit (see 2 Peter 1:22)
  • Holy Ghost saith – In Hebrews 1:1, God the Father spake “by the prophets”. In Hebrews 2:3, the gospel was spoken by the Lord. Here, the Holy Ghost is speaking – “thus, by linking together these three passages we hear all the Persons of the Godhead” (AW Pink).
  • saith – Note the writer does not say “said”, but “saith”. The Holy Spirit speaks (present tense) through the Word of God
    • He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches” (Rev 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 3:13, 3:22).
    • “Whatever was given by inspiration from the Holy Ghost, and is recorded in the Scripture for the use of the Church, He continues therein to speak it unto us unto this day” (Dr. John Owen)


To day if ye will hear his voice, Harden not your hearts, as …When your fathers tempted me…

    • The quote is from Ps 95:7-11
    • We cannot soften our hearts, but we can harden them, and the consequences will be fatal. Today is too good a day to be profaned by the hardening of our hearts against our own mercies.” (Spurgeon on Ps 95:8)
    • See Romans 2:5 – “But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God”
    • How do our hearts get hard?

But this hardening is caused by two things: first, by God not offering grace: ‘He has mercy on whom he will, and whom he wills, he hardens’ (Rom. 9:18); secondly, by the sinner hardening himself by not obeying God and by not opening his heart to grace: ‘And they made their heart as the adamant stone, lest they should hear the law and the words which the Lord of hosts sent in his spirit by the hand of the former prophets’ (Zech 7:12). Therefore, harden not your hearts i.e., do not close your hearts to the Holy Spirit: ‘You always resist the Holy Spirit’ (Ac. 7:51).
(Thomas Aquinas)

  • To hear God’s voice is to heed his will made known in His Word
  • A hard heart is due to “impenitency (Rom. 2:5), unbelief (Heb. 3:12), disobedience (Ps. 95:8)” (AW Pink)
  • The Israelites murmur against God – see Exodus 17
  • your fathers tempted (πειράζω) me, proved (δοκιμάζω) me…
    • πειράζω and δοκιμάζω both mean to test or try
    • It is a “wicked sin of unbelief” to test or try God to prove His faithfulness! (Mt 4:7)

I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways.

    • they have not known my ways – see Matt 7:23: “I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity
    • A true believer says (Ps 25:4) – “Shew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths. Lead me in thy truth, and teach me: for thou art the God of my salvation.
    • What does it mean that God was grieved by that generation?

“When God says He ‘was grieved’ He means that He was burdened, vexed, displeased …Men live, speak and act as if they thought God [was] very little concerned in what they do, especially in their sins; that either He takes no notice of them, or if He do, that He is not much concerned in them; …They think that, as to thoughts about sins, God is altogether as themselves. But it is far otherwise, …He is also concerned as a God of Justice. His holiness and justice is His nature, and He needs no other reason to punish sin but Himself”

So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.

…in view of the lamentable history of Israel, who, despite God’s wondrous favors to them, hardened their hearts, grieved Him, and so provoked Him to wrath, that He sware they should not enter into His rest, how much on our guard we need to be of “holding fast” the confidence and rejoicing of our hope “firm unto the end!”

An unspeakably solemn warning is this for all who profess to be God’s people today. A still more wonderful and glorious manifestation has God now made of Himself than any which Israel ever enjoyed. God has been manifested in flesh. The only-begotten Son has declared the Father. He has fully displayed His matchless grace and fathomless love by coming here and dying for poor sinners. When He left the earth, He sent the Holy Spirit, so that we now have not a Moses, but the third Person of the Trinity to guide us. God made known His laws unto Israel, but His complete Word is now in our hands. What more can He say, than to us He has said! How great is our responsibility; how immeasureably greater than Israel’s is our sin and guilt, if we despise Him who speaks to us!
(AW Pink)

O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end!
(Dt 32:29)

Notes on Hebrews 3:1-6

Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling1, consider the Apostle2 and High Priest3 of our profession, Christ Jesus; Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses4, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God5. And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we6, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.

  • 1 2 Tim 1:9
  • 2 John 5:23, 30, 36-37; 6:39, 44, 57; 8:16, 18, 29, 42; 10:36; 12:49; 14:24; 17:3, 21, 25; 20:21
  • 3 Heb 2:17, 4:14-15, 5:6, 10, 6:20, 7:1-8:4, 9:11-25, 10:21
  • 4 John 1:17
  • 5 Jn 1:3, Heb 1:2
  • 6 Eph 2:19, Gal 6:10, 1 Pt 2:5

III. Introduction: Superiority of Christ Over Moses

These verses form the third major section of the Epistle to the Hebrews. The focus of these verses is on the Superiority of Christ over Moses. From this, we may infer the superiority of the New Covenant (Covenant of Grace) over the old (called Mosaic or Siniatic).

The contents of this section may be stated briefly thus: That the Lord Jesus Christ, the mediator of the new covenant, is high above Moses, the mediator of the old dispensation, inasmuch as Jesus is the Son of God, and Lord over the house; whereas Moses is the servant of God, who is faithful in the house.
(Saphir, as quoted by AW Pink)

Moses

Christ

God spoke His Word to/through Moses as a prophet Christ Himself is “the Truth” and incarnate “Word of God”
Moses reflected the light of God’s glory Christ is the manifest image of God’s glory
Moses executed priestly functions Christ is The Great High Priest
Moses was “king in Jeshurun” Christ is the King of Kings
Moses built the Levitical tabernacle Christ IS the tabernacle of God
Moses delivered Israel (according to the flesh) from Egypt Christ delivers “true Israel” from slavery to sin, death, and everlasting damnation

Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus

  • These verses are addressed to “Holy Brethren” -> the partakers of the Heavenly calling (effectual calling – see 2 Tim 1:9)
    • see Heb 2:11 – Christ is not ashamed to be called our Brother
    • “Holy” may be here to distinguish between the fleshly Jewish brothers and the true believing brothers – those who have been sanctified
    • Heavenly calling shows the nature of our calling – it is not Earthly like the promises under the Mosaic Covenant
  • “Wherefore” – connecting link to the preceding chapters. In other words, here is a conclusion based on the fact that Christ is far superior to all angelic beings:
  • What are the brothers encouraged to do? “consider Christ
    • consider – “signifies to thoroughly think of the matter, so as to arrive at a fuller knowledge of it. It was the word used by our Lord in His “consider the ravens, consider the lilies” (Luke 12:24, 27).” – (AW Pink)
    • “…if we render obedience to this precept, then we shall be preserved from …hardening of the heart, grieving the Lord, missing our ‘rest’.” (AW Pink)
    • We are to consider that Christ is an apostle and prophet, greater even that Moses
  • Apostle (ἀπόστολος) – “a messenger sent forth“. Pink believes this emphasizes Christ’s Prophetic role
        • Christ was sent to do the Father’s will:

    Bible Gateway: John 5:23, 30, 36-37; 6:39, 44, 57; 8:16, 18, 29, 42; 10:36; 12:49; 14:24; 17:3, 21, 25; 20:21

  • High Priest – see Heb 2:7
  • Much more will be said of Christ’s priestly office in this epistle
  • The writer here emphasizes two of Christ’s offices: As the sent one (Apostle), Christ represents the Father to us. As a priest, Christ represents us before the Father
  • …our profession… (ὁμολογία) – means profession (1 Tim 6:12-13) or confession (Thayer).
    • Confessing Christ as Lord is our salvation – Rom 10:9-10, 1 Jn 4:2-3,15
    • We must “hold fast” to our profession – Heb 4:14, 10:23

Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house.

  • For the Jews, to whom this letter was addressed, every religious thought or action is tied to Moses, so it is no light thing to say that Christ excelled him in greatness
  • Appoint (ποιέω) – This verb means literally ‘to make’. I can’t find a Bible dictionary that has the definition of ποιέω to mean ‘appoint’, not even secular LSJ. All translations I can find use ‘appoint’, except Darby.
    • This making (ποιέω) is not into man (as in the incarnation), but rather being made ‘High Priest’ (continuing the argument from verse 1). All Bible versions seem to be interpreting this phrase, rather than translating it.
  • Christ was a ‘faithful’ High Priest – “I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do…” (John 17:4)
  • House here refers to the ‘household of God’ (Eph 2:19). Confer usages in the Bible like ‘House of Israel’, etc.
  • “it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful.” (1 Cor 4:2)

For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God.

  • The author now proceeds to show how why Christ is worthy of more honor than Moses
  • For – The author is demonstrating ‘why’ we should “consider … Christ Jesus
  • Moses was a member of the household of Israel, but Christ was the Lord of the house of Israel
  • Moses was a mere man, but Christ was God: “every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God

And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we…

  • Further explanation of how Christ, as son of God, is greater than Moses, mediator of Israel
  • Moses was a faithful servant (vs 5), but Christ is a faithful Son (vs 6)
  • whose house are we – a Spiritual house:
    • “household of faith (Gal 6:10)
    • “household of God (Eph 2:19)
    • “Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house” (1 Pet 2:5)

…, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.

  • We are truly of the household of faith if we hold the faith firm to the end.
  • vss 3:7 – 4:16 expand on holding firm to the faith and preserving to the end in order to enter into God’s rest.

“If ye continue in My word, then are ye My disciples indeed”
(John 8:31)

Notes on Hebrews 2:17-18

Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest1 in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation2 for the sins of the people. For in that he himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted3.

  • 1 Heb 4:14, 5:1, 10:21
  • 2 1 Jn 2:2, 1 Jn 4:10
  • 3 Heb 4:14, 1 Cor 10:13, James 1:12, 1 Pet 1:6, 2 Pet 2:9

These verses complete the argument (begun in 1:4) that Christ, though made lower in His incarnation, is far superior to the angelic beings (1:4-2:18). Verses 10-18 of Chapter 2 ennumerate several reasons why the Son of God became the Son of Man: for the suffering of death, to sanctify his brethren, destroy the work of the devil, to make reconciliation as a faithful high priest, and to succor those that are tempted. These last two are the focus of verses 17 and 18.

Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God

  • The Son of God became man so that he might be a faithful high priest for men.
  • Incarnation

  • Wherefore (ὅθεν) – Drawing a conclusion from what has been stated: “he took on him the seed of Abraham
  • It behoved him – “to be under obligation” (Strong). It was Christ’s ‘necessary obligation’ to be made like his brethren, in order to make reconciliation for them.
  • all things (κατὰ πάντα). It is always necessary to qualify the word ‘all’ when we find it in Scripture. The “all things” or “every thing” here does not include our sinful nature and those things that result from it – sickness, depression, hate, lust, etc.
  • Christ was like us in that He was: hungry, thirsty, and tired; needed sleep and food; He loved, marveled, was saddened and astonished; He grew, He studied, and He prayed, etc.
  • Q: Why would the Son of Glory subject Himself to this humiliation? A: “that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest”.
  • High Priest

  • Why did the Son of God need to become man in order to be a faithful high priest?
    • Because of the infinite distance between God and men (1 Tim 6:16)
    • Because of the enmity between God and men (Rom. 5:10; Col. 1:21).
    • Conclusion: No immediate access for man to God without a priest: (one mediator, 1 Tim 2:5), (through Christ we have access to God, Eph 2:18, Eph 3:12)
  • merciful and faithful – Christ is merciful to us fallen creatures and faithful to God the Father.
  • Having trod the same path as His suffering and tried people, Christ is able to enter into their afflictions. He is not like an angel, who has never experienced pain. He is Man; nor are His sympathies impaired by His exaltation to heaven. The same human heart beats within the bosom of Him who sits at God’s right hand as caused Him to weep over Jerusalem! To be “faithful” means that His compassions are regulated by holiness, His sympathies are exercised, according to the requirements of God’s truth. There is a perfect balance between His maintenance of God’s claims and His ministering to our infirmities.
    (AW Pink)

  • More on the High Priestly role of Christ – see: Heb 4:14, 5:1, 10:21

to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

  • make reconciliation (ἱλάσκομαι) – to become propitious, be placated or appeased (Thayer)
    • Rendered “to make propitiation” in ESV, ASV, HCSB, NASB, and YLT.
    • Noun form (ἱλασμός) of ἱλάσκομαι:
      • 1 Jn 2:2 – “he is the propitiation for our sins
      • 1 Jn 4:10 – [God] “sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.

    Reconciliation is between God and us; propitiation is solely God-ward. Propitiation was the appeasing of God’s holy anger and righteous wrath; reconciliation is entering into the peace which the atoning sacrifice of Christ has procured.
    (AW Pink)

  • Climax of the argument about WHY the Son of God became man -> so that He might propitiate God on our behalf!
  • In the time of the law, a man must have been a kinsman to be a redeemer (Lv 25, Ruth 4)
  • “the sins of the people”. Which people? The children God gave to Christ (vs 13), the seed of Abraham (vs 16, see Gal 3:29), His brothers (vs 17)
  • “A universal atonement …is an invention of Satan, with the design of casting dishonor upon Christ. …[An atonement which] is theoretically sufficient for everybody, yet in itself efficient for nobody, is a fictitious imagination, which finds lodgment only in those who are vainly puffed up by a fleshly mind.” (AW Pink)

For in that he himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.

  • The final reason why the Son became man
  • Christ has never sinned (1 Pet 2:22) or even longed to sin, but He has been tempted (Heb 4:14), and so He is merciful to those who ask for help (1 Cor 10:13) when they are tempted.
  • [Christ] “was in all points tempted like as [we are, yet] without sin”. (Heb 4:14)
  • Temptation – 1 Cor 10:13, James 1:12, 1 Pet 1:6, 2 Pet 2:9

Epilogue

Oh, what a Savior is ours! The all-mighty God; yet the all-tender Man. One who is as far above us in His original nature and present glory as the heavens are above the earth: yet One who can be “touched with the feeling of our infirmities,” One who is the Creator of the universe; yet One who became Man, lived His life on the same plane ours is lived, passed through the same trials we experience, and suffered not only as we do, but far more acutely. How well-fitted is such a One to be our great High Priest! How self-sufficient He is to supply our every need! And how completely is the wisdom and grace of God vindicated for having appointed His blessed Son, to be made, for a season, lower than the angels! May our love for Him be strengthened and our worship deepened by the contemplation of what has been before us in these first two chapters of Hebrews.
(AW Pink)

Notes on Hebrews 2:14-16

Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same1; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death2, that is, the devil; And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage3. For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham4.

  • 1 John 1:14, Col 2:9, 1 Tim 3:16
  • 2 1 John 3:8, Gen 3:15, Rom 16:20
  • 3 Col. 1:13, 2 Tim 1:7, 1 Cor 15:55
  • 4 Matt 3:9, Matt 8:11, Gal 3:7, 3:9, 3:29

Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same

  • These verses expand on what has just been said about Christ as our brother
    • Verse 11 teaches us that Christ is not ashamed to call those he has sanctified brothers
    • vss 12-13 quote OT prophecies from Psalms and Isaiah to show the Messiah calling his elect brothers
  • In the larger context, the author continues to explain why the Lord of angels was made for a time ‘a little lower than the angels’ (2:7)
  • Forasmuch then… – (ἐπεὶ οὖν) Means: therefore, since, etc. A conclusion is being drawn from the Old Testament verses that have just been cited
  • If the sanctified are flesh and blood, the Sanctifier must be so also.
    • As man forfeited the righteousness of God in falling to temptation; that righteousness had to be merited by a Man who would overcome temptation
    • As man merited a great debt of sin, a Man satisfied infinite justice
  • If He is to make us like Him, He first had to make Himself like us
  • It is a great comfort to us that our Saviour has Himself suffered hunger, thirst, temptation, sorrow, fatigue, and pain – “a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief” (Is 53:3).
  • He…took part – He actively and voluntarily condescended in His incarnation.
    • Those who mock penal substitutionary atonement as “child abuse” are blind fools.
    • Christ was not passive in his incarnation – He took it on Himself

    that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil

  • Q: Why did Christ take our frail human nature upon Himself? A: That he might destroy the works of the devil (1 Jn 3:8).
  • The very first gospel preaching in the Bible describes our Lord’s work as crushing the head of Satan (Gen 3:15, Rom 16:20)
  • For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil” (1 Jn 3:8)
  • The worst tragedy of human history is the ultimate triumph of good over evil
    1. What does it mean that the devil has the “power of death“?
    2.  

      Inasmuch as the Devil is the one who brought about the downfall of our first parents, by which sentence of death has been passed upon all their posterity (Rom. 5:12); inasmuch as he goeth about as a roaring lion “seeking whom he may devour” (1 Pet. 5:8); inasmuch as he challenged God to inflict upon the guilty the sentence of the law (Zech. 3:1); and, inasmuch as even the elect of God are, before their regeneration, under “the power of darkness” (Col. 1:13 and cf. Acts 26:18), dead in trespasses and sins, yet “walking according to the Prince of the power of the air”; the Devil may be said to have “the power of death.”
      (AW Pink)

    3. What does it mean that Christ has destroyed the devil?
      • The word “destroy” is translated from: καταργέω
      • According to Thayer, καταργέω means: to render idle, unemployed, inactivate, inoperative, to cause a person or thing to have no further efficiency, to deprive of force, influence, power
      • Satan has no power or influence over those who are in Christ – Satan’s power is sin (1 Cor 15:56), and sin brings death (Rom 3:23). Christ has borne away the penalty for sin, so Satan now has no power over those for whom Christ died (Rom 8:31-33).
      • Satan is roaming around like a ferocious lion (1 Pet 5:8), but he may be resisted by those who have faith (Ja 4:7)
      • Satan’s power cannot overcome the Kingdom of Christ, but he still blinds the eyes of non-believers (2 Cor 4:4)
      • Satan’s power over the church was destroyed at the cross, and at Christ’s appearing, he and his kingdom will be destroyed forever (Rev 20:10)
  • The power of Satan is death; and Christ overcame death BY death
  • “Death is swallowed up in victory.” (1 Cor 15:54)

deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

  • “God hath not given us the spirit of fear…” (2 Tim 1:7)
  • “Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?” (1 Cor 15:55)
  • The fear of death is the fear of The Judgement (Rev 6:15-16)

For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham.

  • It is not angels (1:4), but the fallen children of Abraham that are the objects of God’s love in the incarnation and death of Christ
  • Fallen angels have no redemption (Jude 6)
  • Christ took on human flesh, thus dignifying his people
  • Man was made in the image of God, the Son of God was made in the likeness of man (but without sin) – “God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh” (Rom 8:3)
  • A hint at sovereign grace:
  • …it also plainly teaches the absolute sovereignty of [divine grace]. Christ lays hold not of “the seed of Adam,” all mankind, but only “the seed of Abraham”—the father of God’s elect people.
    (AW Pink)

  • seed of Abraham – Matt 3:9, Matt 8:11, Gal 3:7, 3:9, 3:29

Summary:

  1. Satan wields the power of sin over fallen man
  2. Sin brings death
  3. Christ has overcome death by death and destroyed the power of sin and Satan
  4. The people for whom Christ died (Abraham’s seed) are no longer under the domain of sin and Satan

Notes on Hebrews 2:11-13

For both he that sanctifieth1 and they who are sanctified are all of one2: for which cause he is not ashamed3 to call them brethren4, Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee5. And again, I will put my trust in him6. And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me7.

  • 1 Heb 10:14, 13:12; Jd 4, Acts 26:18, Eph 5:26, Jn 17:17
  • 2 Heb 2:17
  • 3 Heb 11:16
  • 4 Mt 12:50, Jn 20:17
  • 5 Ps 22:22
  • 6 Is 8:17
  • 7 Is 8:18, Jn 6:36

For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren

  • For… – The writer continues the argument from verse 9 that Christ took the nature of man (a nature lower than that of angels) so that he might “bringing many sons unto glory”.
  • Christ brought “many sons” to glory “through sufferings” (vs 10)
  • All of One

  • By taking on our nature and suffering on our behalf, Christ has made us “all of one” with Himself
  • “in all things it behoved him to be made like unto [his] brethren” (Heb 2:17)
  • Both the Sanctifier (Christ) and those sanctified (the ones God gave him, see vs 13) are “all of one” – they all have the same standing before the Father
  • The oneness with Christ not only means that we identify with His exaltation, but that He identifies with our humility (see vs 18). Christ shared in our frailty, we will share in his glory (“bringing many sons unto glory”).
  • Sanctification

  • Christ is our sanctification (see Heb 10:14, Acts 26:18)
  • Christ continues to sanctify (to make us holy) through His word – Eph 5:26, Jn 17:17
  • Sanctification (Webster 1828 Dictionary): To cleanse, purify, make holy, set apart to a holy use, to purify, and make free from guilt.
  • On sanctification, see London Baptist Confession, Chapter 13: Sanctification

Q. What is sanctification?
A. Sanctification is a work of God’s free grace whereby we are renewed in the whole man after the image of God, and are enabled more and more to die unto sin, and live unto righteousness.

(Baptist Catechism)

Those who are united to Christ, effectually called and regenerated, have a new heart and a new spirit created in them through the efficacy of Christ’s death and resurrection. Furthermore, they are also really and personally sanctified through the same means, by his Word and Spirit dwelling in them. The power of every part of the body of sin is destroyed, and its various lusts are increasingly weakened and put to death, and saving graces are increasingly brought to life and strengthened in them so that they practice true holiness without which no one shall see the Lord.

(1689 London Baptist Confession, Section 13.1)

…for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren

  • Because of the shared nature and glory of the sanctifier and sanctified, Christ is not ashamed to call men His brothers
  • Sinful men can be brothers with The Son of God, because He has sanctified them with His blood (Heb 13:12)
  • Mt 12:50 – “For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother”
  • As the Son is not ashamed of His brethren, the Father is not ashamed to be their God (Heb 11:16)
  • As Christ is not ashamed of His elect, let us NOT be ashamed of Christ – Rom 1:16, Rom 9:33, Rom 10:11, 1 Jn 2:28, etc.
  • Should we call Jesus our brother? Our Saviour gives “this honor unto us, yet we must retain in our hearts an high and reverent esteem of Him, and on that ground give such titles to Him as may manifest as much” (Gouge) as we have example from Scripture – Lord, Master, Savior, etc.

…I will declare thy name unto my brethren

  • Quote from Psalm 22 – the Great Psalm of the Cross
  • The Psalm prophecies the incarnation (vss 9-10), sufferings (vss 11-21), and victory of the Messiah (vs 22)
  • According to Pink, Ps 22:22 speaks to the time of Christ’s resurrection. As proof, he notes that Christ only calls his followers brethren AFTER his resurrection, e.g. Jn 20:17
  • declare (διηγέομαι): set forth, recount, relate in full, describe (Thayer)
  • Christ declares that he will reveal the Father (the gospel call) unto His brethren
    • John 17:6 – “I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world”
    • John 17:26 – “I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them”

…in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee

  • The second half of Ps 22:22 reads in the LXX: ἐν μέσῳ ἐκκλησίας ὑμνήσω σε – in the midst of the church (ἐκκλησία), I will sing praise (or sing hymns) to you
    • The KJV rightly interprets ἐκκλησία here where many versions opt for the more general and vague word ‘congregation’
    • Ps 22:22 as quoted here defines the “brothers” of the Messiah with the Church (ἐκκλησία)
    • Christ declares or reveals God “in the midst” of the church – compare Rev 1:1 with Rev 2:1

    And again, I will put My trust in Him

    • πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπ’ αὐτῷ (LXX Is 8:17) – (lit) “I have trusted upon him”.
      • πεποιθὼς is a perfect form of πείθω, meaning “to trust, have confidence, be confident” (Thayer)
      • Is 8 summary: When Judah seeks protection, not from the Lord of hosts, but rather in the kings of Israel and Syria, the Lord prophecies through Isaiah that Israel and Syria will be destroyed by Assyria (vss 5-8). The Lord teaches (vss 8-12) that if Israel joins with the the Israel/Syria confederacy, they will also be “broken in pieces”. Then, The Lord teaches that He is a sanctuary to the godly, but a stone of stumbling to the wicked and unbelieving in Israel (vss 14-15). The KJV and LXX have divergent readings in verse 17.
      • (KJV) And I will wait upon the LORD, that hideth his face from the house of Jacob, and I will look for him. (LXX) And one shall say, I will wait for God, who has turned away his face from the house of Jacob, and I will trust in him.
      • Perhaps the LXX verse 17 speaks of the Messiah who alone will have perfect trust in God the Father, in the midst of the unbelief of the house of Israel.
      • This is indeed a word which should bow our hearts in wonderment. What a lowly place had the Maker of heaven and earth taken! How these words bring out the reality of His humanity! The Son of God had become the Son of Man, and while here on earth He ever acted in perfect accord with the place which He had taken. He lived here a life of faith, that is, a life of trust in and dependence upon God.

      • Christ, as incarnate Son of Man, lived a life of faith and total dependence on the Father during His earthly ministry – “He trusted on the LORD that he would deliver him” (Ps 22:8)

       

      And again, behold I and the children which God hath given Me

      • And again… The writer uses the phrase “and again” five times in this letter. In each usage, he is furnishing yet another Scripture reference to advance the point at hand.
      • The quote is taken from Isaiah 8:18: “Behold, I and the children whom the LORD hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion.
        • Isaiah had two sons whose names were prophetical signs to Israel
          • Shearjasub (Is 7:3): “a remnant shall return”
          • Mahershalalhashbaz (Is 8:3-4): “Hurry to the spoil”
          • The literal-historical-grammatical hermeneutic fails to show how Isaiah’s prophecy regarding his sons can be interpreted by the Hebrews author as referring to the Messiah and His elect
        • The Father has given a people to the Son:
          • “All that the Father giveth me shall come to me” (Jn 6:37)
          • “I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world” (Jn 17:6a)
          • “…thine they were, and thou gavest them me…” (Jn 17:6b)

          …how dear, how precious, must God’s elect be unto Christ! They are the Father’s own “gift” unto Him. The value of a gift lies not in its intrinsic worth, but in the esteem and affection in which the giver is held. It is in this light, first of all, that Christ ever views His people—as the expression of the Father’s own love for Himself.

          (AW Pink)

    Notes on Hebrews 2:9-10

    But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels1 for the suffering of death2, crowned with glory and honour3; that he by the grace of God should taste death4 for every man. For it became him, for whom are all things5, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory6, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.

    • 1 Heb 2:7, Ps 8:5
    • 2 Phil 2:8
    • 3 Phil 2:8-9, Eph 1:20-23
    • 4 Matt 16:28, John 8:52
    • 5 Pr 16:4, Rev 4:11, Rom 11:36
    • 6 John 17:22, 1 Pet 3:18

    we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels…

    • Preceding verses (1:4-14, 2:5-9) spoke of infinite superiority of Christ above angels. Here we see Him voluntarily “made” lower than the angels. Why? “For the suffering of death”.
    • The one who created angels (Heb 1:2) is made to be lower than them
    • “How these words should melt our hearts and move our souls to profoundest wonderment! (Pink)
    • “Little” (βρᾰχύς); According to LSJ, βρᾰχύς can mean small time, short distance, small size, small in number, low importance, or humble.
      • Author uses the word in 13:22 to mean “few words”
      • Pink believes lower here means not “a little lower” than the angels in stature, but rather “made lower for a short time”, but I cannot find a translation that takes this approach
      • This makes good sense, but Psalm 2:5, which this verse quotes, does not seem to mean “short time”, but rather “lower in stature”
        • Thayer’s Lexicon supports Pink – “the writer transfers to time what the Sept. in Psalm 8:6 says of rank” as in Acts 5:34 and Luke 22:58
        • Pulpit commentary – The phrase βραχύ τι, where it occurs in this verse with reference to Christ’s temporary humiliation, is by many taken to mean “for a little while,” on the ground that this meaning suits best the application to Christ, [but] … if “a little” be, as it seems to be, the original meaning in the psalm [Ps 2:5], there is no necessity for supposing a departure from it.

    …for the suffering of death…

    • The sinless Christ was not ‘subject’ to death, so He laid down His own life in suffering (John 10:18)
    • In the incarnation, Christ took on the nature of mortal man and subjected himself to death. As angels were not capable of dying, Christ was for a time lower than they.
    • Phil 2:8 – And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.

    …crowned with glory and honour…

    • Because of His humiliation, He has been highly exalted by God the Father (in His resurrection)
      • Phil 2:8-9
      • Eph 1:20-23
    • The “crown of thorns” has given way to the crown of “glory and honor”

    Have you “crowned with glory and honor” Him whom the world has cast out? Do you, in a practical way, own Him as your Lord and Master? Is His glory and honor ever the paramount consideration before you? Is He receiving from you the devotion and adoration of a worshipping heart? “Worthy is the Lamb.” O may He, indeed, occupy the throne of our hearts and reign as King over our lives. In what esteem does the Father hold His once humiliated Son: He has crowned Him with glory and honor; then what must He yet do with those who “despise and reject” Him?
    (Pink)

    …that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.

    • that (ὅπως) means “so that”, “to the end that”, etc. What follows ὅπως expresses purpose.
    • “by the grace of God” – the efficient cause that moved the Son to suffer was solely the free grace and mercy of God
    • Christ had to “taste” the bitter cup of suffering – Matt 26:39
    • “taste death” – According to Gill this is a common Jewish phrase for death, see Matt 16:28 and John 8:52
    • “for every man” – the Greek word is πᾶς which has the following range of meanings (according to Thayer’s Lexicon) – each, every, any, all, the whole, everyone, all things, everything
    • The “all” is not defined by the original text. “All men” is an interpretation.
    • The next verse clarifies the “all” here to be the “many sons” who are brought to glory

    For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things…

    • became (πρέπω). Meaning is seemly or fit. ESV uses “fitting”.
    • God is the Creator AND Sustainer of “all” things
    • Everything was created by Him, is sustained through Him, and exists for His glory
    • See: Pr 16:4, Rev 4:11, Rom 11:36

    …bringing many sons unto glory…

    • Christ will bring “many” sons into His own amazing glory
    • “the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one (John 17:22)
    • “For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God…” (1 Pet 3:18)

    …captain of their salvation…

    • Captain (ἀρχηγός). According to LSJ: leader, chief, prince, originator
    • Various translations use: pioneer, leader, founder, author, source
    • See Acts 3:15, 5:31, Heb 12:22

    In closing, let us ask the reader, “Are you one of these many “sons” whom Christ is bringing “unto glory”? Are you quite sure that you are? It is written, “As many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God” (Rom. 8:14). Is this true of you? Can others see the evidences of it? Is your daily life controlled by self-will, the ways of the world, the pleasing of your friends and relatives, or by the written Word, for that is what the Spirit uses in leading His sons.
    (AW Pink)