Who Was Hosea? part 2

Q. What is the character of this division, as contrasted with the first three chapters of Hosea?

The first three chapters is a biographical sketch of Hosea’s relationship to his adulterous wife. This serves as a type of idolatrous Israel, which is expanded upon in chapters 4 through 14.

Q. What was Jehovah’s controversy with Israel as set forth in Hosea 4:1-5?

Hosea lays out, like a lawyer, the charges for violating his law.  He charges the people with being unfaithful to Jehovah (Table 1).  They have indulged in swearing, lying, murder, stealing, and adultery (Table 2).

Q. What was the verdict of destruction set forth in Hosea 4:6-10?

Because the priests have not fulfilled their obligation to teach the people about the law of God (“My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge”), he rejects them “from being a priest to me.”  He further accuses the priests and people of being drunks, gluttons, and whore-mongers.

Q. What two practices are named together in Hosea 4:11-14, and what was their effect upon the mind of man?

Whoredom and wine!  These two combine to take away the understanding of men.  The people are left to idolotry and superstition – seeking wisdom from wood statues and magic rituals.

Q. What is the warning to Judah in 4:15-19?

Judah is warned that Israel has ruined itself in sin and will be destroyed.  Judah should not follow in her example.

Q. What are the notable things in the address of 5:1-7?

The priests and royalty are singled out for judgment.  None of their sins are hidden from the face of God.  When they seek Him with sacrifices, they will not find Him.  The time for repentance is past and the time for judgment has come.

Note: It is interesting to note that the end of this sections states that the moon will devour them with their fields.  The new moon festival was set aside to celebrate a bountiful harvest.  This new moon judgment will witness them and their fields being devoured (cf: 1 Chr 23:31, Is 1:13, Joel 2:31, Rev 6:21).

Q. What is the significance and the application of the cornet and trumpet in 5:8-15?

An alarm of warning that an attack is impending.  Israel and Judah are reaching out to other world powers for help, but none can stop the attack that will come like a lion strike.

Q. What is the interpretation and application of 6:1-3?

Hosea appeals to Israel to repent and return to the LORD.  Even though he has hurt Israel (past tense = seeing the prophecies of chapters 4 and 5 in the past), he may yet heal them.  If Israel turns, God will raise them up on the third day.  This was literally accomplished when the federal head of all “true Israel” rose up on the third day “to live before Him.”

Q. Paraphrase Hosea 6:4-7 so as to show its interpretation and application.

God asks, “What should I do with Israel and Judah?  Their love fades away as fast as the morning fog.  I have reprimanded them with my Word through my prophets.

Q. What are the charges against Israel in 7:1-16?

Even though Jehovah is willing to heal Israel, they refuse to repent.  They fool themselves into believing they have hidden their sin.  The prophet relays four similes that describe their unfaithfulness: passion like an overheated oven; an un-turned cake not fit to eat; a fickle dove roving to and fro looking for help, but getting caught in a net; and like a traitor soldier, they were trained by God, but they use their weapons against Him.

Q. How does the prophet pronounce judgment and what is the significance in each case (Hos. 8:1-14)?

He calls on the trumpeter to sound the warning in Israel because she is about to be judged for transgressing her covenant.  (1) She made kings that God didn’t choose, (2) They worshiped idols, (3) they bribe pagan nations for protection, but neglect their God, (4) they do not know the commandments of God, and (5) they profane God’s sacrifices.

Q. Describe these judgments in detail as given in chapter 9.

  • They will suffer famine
  • They will be taken into captivity
  • They will be forsaken of the LORD
  • Their land and their women will be barren
  • Their children will be slaughtered
  • They will be rejected and hated by God
  • They will wander the earth without a home

Q. State briefly the prophet’s recapitulation and appeal (Hos.10:1-15).

  1. Israel is like a vine that bears bad fruit (she is rich, but worships idols)
  2. She will be judged for her idolatry – her altars will be destroyed
  3. Their faith is not in their God and king, but in covenants with pagan nations
  4. Their idols shall be carried away when the land is destroyed
  5. Their altars will be left in ruin
  6. Israel was like a cow trained to pull a plow, but she plowed iniquity and reaped injustice
  7. She put her trust in military might and by military might she will suffer and be destroyed

Q. What are the contents of section 11:1 to 14:8?

Carroll titles this section as “Pollution and Pity”.  Though Israel has sinned, Jehovah yet has pity for her.  Though sin has led to judgment, love will triumph over judgment and have the final victory.  He sees this final section as an outline of (i) God’s love in the past, vss 11:1-11, (ii) God’s love in the present, vss 12:7-11, and (iii) God’s love in the future, vss 13:4-14.

Q. What, in general, is Jehovah’s message in 11:1-11?

Jehovah loved and trained up Israel as a father loves and trains his son.  Sadly, the more Jehovah showered them with grace, the more they rejected Him in favor of idols.  Though God loved them and delivered them from bondage in Egypt, they did not love Him, and they will return to slavery (in Assyria).

In verses 8-12, Jehovah states that it is not within Him to reject His people forever.  His compassion and tender feelings toward his son will not allow it.  He will roar for them like a lion and they will come to Him from all the surrounding regions.  This passage may hint at the gathering together of all “true Israel” into one at the return of Christ at the end of the ages.

Q. What is Jehovah’s message in chapter 12?

In chapter 12, Jehovah again indicts Israel.  Her father Jacob was a deceiver and Israel is a deceiver today – in false balances and love of money.  God saved them from Egypt and preached to them through the prophets, but they turned to idols instead of worshiping Him.  Israel has the guilt of blood on his conscience and God will repay him.

Q. What, in general, is Jehovah’s message in chapter 13?

The chapter begins, once again, with God’s judgment on Israel for worshiping idols instead of Him.  The people worship iron and silver idols and offer human sacrifices to their gods.  But Jehovah, the One who delivered them from Egypt, is the one and only true God who they should worship.  He has been their helper, but he will now be their destroyer.  For Israel there is no escape, not even in the grave, and the LORD will have no compassion.

Q. What are the contents of chapter 14?

The prophecy of Hosea ends with the prophet making an appeal to the nation to “return unto the Lord thy God; for thou hast fallen by thine iniquity.”  Israel is urged to place their faith in their God, not the Assyrian empire and their idols.  In these final verses God promises to heal them, love them, and blossom them in their land, if only they will repent. 

Who is wise, and he shall understand these things? prudent, and he shall know them? for the ways of the Lord are right, and the just shall walk in them: but the transgressors shall fall therein. (Hosea 14:9)

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