Who Were the Later Prophets?

The questions below come from Chapter 1 of Volume 7 of BH Carroll‘s “An Interpretation of the English Bible.”

Introduction – The Prophets in General

1. What section of the Bible are we studying?

The later prophets

2. What can you say, in general, of the commentaries on this section?

Generally, older commentaries are better (pre-1880s), but some conservative modern works may be consulted judiciously.

3. What commentaries are especially commendable?

– Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown
– Hengstenberg
– The Pulpit Commentary

4. What are the time limits of the prophetic period and what was the special mission of the prophets?

This period extends 700 years from Samuel to Malachi.

The mission of the prophets was to preach against the despotism of the kings and formalism of the priesthood.

5. What is the definition of the word “prophet”?

The Greek word (prophetes) means “to speak for”, i.e. on behalf of another, so the prophet is one that speaks on behalf of God to man.

6. By what words or terms were the prophets known? Give an illustration of each.

Hebrew nabhi  – means “speaker”
Hebrew ro’eh  – means “seer”
Hebrew chozeh – means “messenger”

also called, “man of God”, “servant of Jehovah”, etc.

7. What can you say about the inspiration of the prophets?

Their minds were stimulated and guided by the Holy Spirit as they proclaimed the message of Jehovah.

For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. (2 Pet 1:21)

8. What can you say about prophecy and fulfillment, and what does Orelli say
   about fulfillment of prophecy?

Many prophecies receive successive fulfillments, but one fulfillment is higher and greater than all the rest.  Orelli says, A prophecy can only be regarded as fulfilled when the whole body of truth included in it has attained living realization.”

9. What were the three great periods of writing prophets and who were the writing prophets of each of these periods?

The Assyrian Period, the Chaldean Period, and the Persian Period.

The Assyrian Period:

1) Obadiah
2) Joel
3) Jonah
4) Amos
5) Hosea
6) Isaiah
7) Micah
8) Nahum

The Chaldean Period:

1) Zephaniah
2) Habakkuk
3) Jeremiah
4) Ezekiel
5) Daniel

The Persian Period:

1) Haggai
2) Zechariah
3) Malachi

10. What are the three distinct elements for which a student of the prophets should look?

1) The historical context in which the prophet lived
2) The fulfillment (past or future) of the prophet’s message
3) Age-abiding principles that speak to our age

11. What are certain things that should be remembered in a study of the prophets?

1) Sovereignty of God
2) Obedience to God
3) Glory to God
4) A living hope that God would have ultimate victory

12. What are important considerations in the interpretation of prophecy?

1) Their teaching was full of figures, symbols, parables, and allegories to confound the simple and unbelieving.
2) Understanding the Pentateuch is necessary to understand these figures and symbols

13. What are the underlying themes found throughout predictive prophecy?

1) The failure of the Jewish nation
2) The coming of the Jewish Messiah
3) The establishment of the Messiah’s Kingdom
4) The restoration of the Jews to that Kingdom
5) The spread of that Kingdom over the whole earth


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