Galatians 1:1-5 Text w/Notes


Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν, 2 καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί, ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας· 3 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς (ἡμῶν) καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 4 τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν (ὑπὲρ) τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν, 5 ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων· ἀμήν.

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Παῦλος all New Testament letters except 1 John and Hebrews, and in fact all letters representing this period of antiquity, begin with the name of the author; ἀπόστολος LSJ – messenger or ambassador, Paul asserts his authority to define Christian doctrine, most likely because it was being challenged, see future post on the Apostolic office ; ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων/δι’ ἀνθρώπου ἀπο only takes a genitive and usually denotes separation, but in this case denotes origin/cause/source “from”, δια + genitive in this case is causal, it denotes the instrument or means “by or through”, therefore Paul was not made an apostle “originating from” or “caused by” man ; διὰ + gen the agent or means of Paul’s apostleship is Jesus Christ AND the Father who raised him (διὰ + gen, see Gal 4:7)  ; τοῦ ἐγείραντος aor ptc adjectival use to distinguish θεοῦ πατρὸς, see DM 200, ἐγείρω is to lift up or raise, BAGD 1β ; ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας to whom the letter is addressed, dative ; χάρις epistolary, a wish of divine grace and favor, replaces Attic χαίρετε – a formal greeting (LSJ) , see BAGD 2c ; ἀπὸ takes two objects, like διὰ above, closely unites Father and Son ; ἡμῶν minor textual variant, Tisch and MT puts it after κυρίου, but NA and WH put it in it’s most common position (Rom 1:7, 1 Cor 1:3, etc) ; τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν aor ptc references Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ because He is the one “giving himself ; ὑπὲρ variant, Tisch and MT prefer περὶ, but NA, TR, and WH choses Paul’s more common formula (1 Cor 15:3), περὶ means “for” or with reference to, whereas ὑπὲρ means “on behalf of” ; ὅπως indicates purpose “so that” ; ἐξέληται aor subj mid εξαιρέω τινὰ ἔκ τινοσ (mid, to rescue someone from something) BAGD 2 ; τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ ἐνίστημι is perf ptc, means having come, ἀιών means age or span of time, therefore “the present time/age” ; τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων lit. ages of ages, ie forever, according to BAGD coming age w/o end common from time of Plato on in Greek literature ; ἀμήν

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